Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.
Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Related Information.
Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. This address does not change and serves the purpose of identification of the MN. In contrast, the CoA changes on every movement resulting in a subnet change and is used as the locator for the routing infrastructure.
Topologically, it belongs to the network the MN is currently visiting. Fur the purpose of redundancy and load balancing, a set of HAs may be used instead of a single HA. These messages are sent over an IPsec security association and thus are authenticated.
However, if the MN is far away from the home network and the CN is close to the MN, the communication path is unnecessarily long, resulting in inefficient routing and high packet delays. Note that different types of location privacy can be distinguished. Other types are hiding the location to eavesdroppers or preventing tracking of the MN ' s location. The route optimization mode can prevent the described inefficiency by using the direct path between CN and MN. A mechanism that provides both location privacy and route optimization is certainly desirable, since interactive applications such as VoIP require short packet delays.
Various approaches can be used to achieve this goal, some of them designed for other purposes. However, all of them introduce new infrastructure components or require changes to existing components in the visited networks.
If the current visited network does not provide such components, location privacy and route optimization is not available, meaning that privacy-protected interactive communication may not be possible. A global deployment of such new components, i.
Other solutions only provide location privacy in one direction, i. Some other solutions have scalability issues when deployed in large scale.
A solution is desired that does not require the introduction of new or modified components in the visited network, works also when both communication partners are mobile and does scale well with respect to deployment. This invention describes such a solution. These approaches are briefly described in the following. Therefore, a local mobility handling is proposed by introducing a hierarchy of Mobility Anchor Points MAP in the visited network. However, because the geographical region that can be derived from the RCoA is larger than the region that can be derived from the actual CoA, this can be regarded as limited location privacy support.
Krishnamurthi, H. Chaskar, R.
This way, the direct, i. A very similar approach is presented in WO The MN tunnels data packets to the edge router of the CN ' s current network assuming that the CN is mobile and the CN can tunnel data packets to the edge router of the MN ' s current visited network. To be able to tunnel the packets to the edge routers, each node needs to know the IP address of the correspondent edge router, which again reveals location information about the correspondent MN. Thubert, R. Wakikawa, V. Location privacy is given if bi-directional tunnelling is used. However, if every visited network advertise routes to all other networks all being home networks for some MNs , routing scalability issues may arise, since the address hierarchy is not given anymore.
Also, the distributed home network must manually be configured as such. An secure on-demand configuration is not supported. Since the prefix is usually used by a router to route IP packets, this approach requires the modification of all routers in the Internet. In WO, multicast addresses are used as CoA. Since they do not include any location information, location privacy support is given even in route optimization mode.
However, this solution does not scale with the number of MNs, since a large-scale deployment would result in a flat routing in the Internet. The solution shall also work when both communication partners are mobile and shall scale well with respect to deployment, i.
It shall also provide the same level of security as standard Mobile IPv6. These objects are achieved by the use of bi-directional tunnelling for location privacy support and by subsequent optimization of the route by providing other HAs with binding information, which then perform proxy functionality in terms of bi-directional tunnelling.
Other than in previous approaches, the proxy functionality only applies to the tunnelling of data packets, only to a specific MN-CN communication session, and is established in a secure and on-demand manner. This invention describes mechanisms for discovering the best suited proxy locations, establishing the proxy functionality in a secure and on-demand manner and for adapting the path after node movements.
In one aspect of the present invention, a method for packet switched data transmission between a first mobile node and a correspondent mobile node in a mobile communication system comprising a plurality of mobile networks , , , , comprises the steps of a allocating a respective home network , to each of the first mobile node and the correspondent mobile node; b providing a network server , as home agent in the respective home network to each of the first mobile node and the correspondent mobile node; and c routing data packets from the first mobile node to the correspondent mobile node, over a first data tunnel , from the first mobile node to any first one of the home agents and over a second data tunnel , from said first one of the home agents to the correspondent mobile node without passing the respective other home agent.
In another aspect of the present invention, a network server is configured to serve as a home agent for a first mobile node sending data packets to a correspondent mobile node in a mobile communication system comprising a plurality of mobile networks , , , The server is further configured to establish a data tunnel , directly to said correspondent mobile node without passing a home agent of said correspondent mobile node, for the purpose of forwarding data packets received from said first mobile node to said correspondent mobile node.
In a further aspect of the present invention, a computer-readable storage medium , , has stored thereon instructions which, when executed on a processor of a network server , cause the network server to serve as a home agent for a first mobile node sending data packets to a correspondent mobile node in a mobile communication system comprising a plurality of mobile networks , , , , and to establish a data tunnel directly to said correspondent mobile node without passing a home agent of said correspondent mobile node, for the purpose of forwarding data packets received from said first mobile node to said correspondent mobile node.
The present invention allows to optimize the routing of data packets between two roaming mobile nodes without revealing the location of the mobile nodes to the respective other one. Furthermore undue implementation effort is avoided because no new entities are required. Additionally required functionality in the home agents is relatively modest, and compatibility with existing methods is maintained, which allows a partial or successive implementation of the invention in larger systems. The drawings are not to be construed as limiting the invention to only the illustrated and described examples of how the invention can be made and used.
Further features and advantages will become apparent from the following and more particular description of the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein FIG.
ProxyGambit improves upon ProxyHam not only by allowing a greater direct range, but also enables you to proxy from anywhere in the world using just an Internet connection, which can then proxy through a reverse GSM serial link onto a public wifi network. There is some proposal such as [NETDISC] that helps obtain this information about the neighboring networks from a mobility server see the above referenced MPA application incorporated herein by reference. Then, the home agent HA transmits packets to the correspondent node CN. Unblock any website. Care-of addressThe care-of address of a mobile device is the network-native IP address of the device when operating in a foreign network.